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Middle Eastern and Russian Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology

Volume 2 Numbers 1 & 2 2008

MERJPSB



CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS

Number 1

M.A.H. Al-Thobhani, B.N. Sathyanarayana (India), Luke Simon (UK/India), Suresh N. Sondur (India) First Comparative Genotypic Study on Khat (Catha edulis Forsk.) Genotypes from Yemen (pp 1-8)

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ABSTRACT

Original Research Paper: In the present study, genetic relationships among 40 genotypes of khat (Catha edulis Forsk.) obtained from diverse locations of Yemen were analysed by RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers. PCR-amplifiable DNA was isolated using the CTAB method and 152 amplified fragments were obtained using 10 random primers with 78.3% polymorphism. Studies of gene diversity revealed a maximum diversity among the genotypes of the North geographical region, eAbyadhf variant and genotypes within tree growth habits. Neifs genetic distance demonstrated the South and Centre geographical populations and eAbyadhf and eAzradf variants were genetically close. The genetic dissimilarity matrix was calculated based on Euclidian Distances and revealed a maximum genetic distance (40%) between genotypes e2Nf and e40Nf and minimum genetic distance (11%) between the genotypes e18Sf and e19Sf. The Wardfs method of cluster analysis grouped all the individuals on the dendrogram into three major clusters eAf, eBf and eCf at 46 linkage distances. The cluster analysis grouped the khat genotypes according to geographical region and growth habit but there was no correlation with pigmentation. RAPD proved to be a quick, simple and significant testing method to assess genetic diversity among khat genotypes.

 

Wafaa M. Shukry, Samia A. Haroun, Osman El-Sawy (Egypt) Asparagine and Glutamine affect the Growth and Cause Metabolic Changes in Phaseolus vulgaris in Vivo (pp 9-28)

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ABSTRACT

Original Research Paper: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of amide nitrogen compounds, mainly L-asparagine or L-glutamine (0-5 mM) on growth, pigment content and metabolism of intact Phaseolus vulgaris plants in vivo, at two stages (seedling and vegetative) of plant growth and development. All growth parameters ? specifically chl a and b and carotenoid contents, total carbohydrates and its fractions ? were increased by 1 and 2 mM asparagine or glutamine but decreased in response to other concentrations (3, 4 and 5 mM) and to the control (i.e. untreated plants), during both stages of development. Treatment with any concentration of asparagine or glutamine to plants grown in vivo generally induced a marked increase in amide nitrogen, total nitrogen and protein content and a decrease in ammonia, peptide and total soluble nitrogen during both stages. Ion content (K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) increased significantly when treated with 1 mM asparagine or glutamine and decreased markedly when other concentrations were used. Both asparagine and glutamine treatments increased and decreased growth promoter (auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins) level at low and high concentrations, respectively, but a reverse trend was observed for abscisic acid. The activity of several enzymes (asparagine synthetase, glutamine synthetase, nitrate reductase and protease) decreased when asparagine or glutamine concentrations were increased during both stages of P. vulgaris development.

 

Fathi I. Radwan, Islam Abou El Seoud, Elham A. Badr (Egypt) Response of Two Rice Cultivars to Blue Green Algae, A-Mycorrhizae Inoculation and Mineral Nitrogen Fertilizer (pp 29-34)

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ABSTRACT

Original Research Paper: Two field experiments were carried out at the experimental farm of the faculty of Agriculture (Saba Basha) Alexandria University, during 2006 and 2007 summer seasons. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of blue green algae (BGA) and A-mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation (biofertilization) and nitrogen application on growth yield and its components of some rice cultivars, namely eSakha 101f and eGiza 178f. The experimental design used was a split plot with four replicates. Both cultivars were randomly distributed in the main plots. The sub-plots were assigned to four fertilization treatments: 1) 44 kg N/fed (control); 2) BGA [2 packages of 500 g of mixed Cyanobacteria groups/fed.; a commercial product] + 22 kg N/fed; 3) AMF inoculation [[100 ml/plant of infected roots] + 22 kg N/fed; 4) BGA + AMF + 22 kg N/fed. eSakha 101f had the highest values for all studied characters in both seasons. Treatment 4, followed by treatment 3, had the highest significant effects on all the studied characters in both rice cultivars during both seasons; treatment 4 resulted in the highest growth, yield and yield components of eSakha 101f.

 

Pedram Assar, Saeid Eshghi, Enayatollah Tafazoli, Majid Rahemi, Abbas Saboorrooh Monfared, Yazdan Gholi Khazaeipoul (Iran) eHaywardf Kiwifruit Characteristics as Affected by Naphthalene Acetic Acid and Girdling (pp 35-37)

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ABSTRACT

Short Communication: In order to study the effect of NAA application and girdling on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of eHaywardf kiwifruit and the probable effect of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on fruit thinning, the present research was performed. Twenty uniform vines were selected for uniformity of age and trunk diameter with all fruiting laterals intact. Shoots including leaves and fruits were sprayed with 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100 mg l-1 NAA to the point of run off. In each vine, half of the experimental canes were girdled and the other half left intact. NAA, especially at 50 and 75 mg l-1, increased fruit criteria such as weight, length and width. Girdling increased fruit weight significantly, especially when combined with NAA. NAA did not have any thinning effect. Total soluble solids were significantly reduced as a result of NAA treatment, however girdling increased total soluble solids (TSS). Highest vitamin C content was obtained with combined NAA + girdling.

 

Number 2

Ahmed Abdel-Megeed (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) New Measures for the Control of Cotton Bollworms Pectinophora gossypiella (Lep.: Gelechiidae) and Earias insulana (Lep.: Noctuidae), with Reference to the Side Effect on Certain Soil Enzymes (pp 38-43)

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ABSTRACT

Original Research Paper: Field experiments were carried out at the Agricultural Research Experimental Farm, Alexandria Governorate, Egypt to evaluate two foliar nutrients, a plant growth promoter (PGP) and two alternative chemical compounds in addition to two standard insecticides (Chlorpyrifos and Spinosad) to determine their possible use in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella and the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana infestations. The side effects of these compounds on certain soil enzymes as well as their efficacy were monitored on cotton yield during the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons. The lowest infestation value of pink bollworm was induced by Easterna Aminofert / Greenzit S.P100 with Chlorpyrifos and Spinosad in the 2006 season and by the Easterna Aminofert / Greenzit S.P100 / Spinosad sequence in the 2007 season. For the spiny bollworm, the sequence of Easterna Aminofert / Greenzit S.P100 / Spinosad gave the lowest infestation percentage in the 2006 season, which, in the 2007 growing season, was obtained when Easterna Aminofert / Greenzit S.P100 with Spinosad and Chlorpyrifos and Easterna Aminofert / Super Biovert / Spinosad were used. The foliar application of Easterna Aminofert / Super Biovert / Spinosad resulted in a higher cotton yield in both seasons, estimated at a 201.1 and 214.2% increase, respectively, followed by Easterna Aminofert / Greenzit S.P100 / Spinosad. The sequences of Easterna Aminofert / Super Biovert with Spinosad and Methoxyfenozide and Easterna Aminofert / Greenzit S.P100 / Methoxyfenozide decreased urease activity while a foliar application of Easterna Aminofert / Super Biovert / Spinosad and Easterna Aminofert / Greenzit S.P100 / Spinosad showed the lowest dehydrogenase activity. In general, dehydrogenase was more influenced by the evaluated sequences than urease.

 

Osama E. El-Sayed, Hayam F. Ibrahim (Egypt) RAPD and ISSR Markers Related to Drought Tolerance of Regenerated Plants in Wheat Double Haploids and Varieties (pp 44-51)

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ABSTRACT

Original Research Paper: To verify the most drought-tolerant genotypes and to determine the appropriate concentration of polyethylene glycol (PEG) that could be used in callus induction and plant regeneration, 10 double haploid (DH) genotypes and five varieties of bread wheat were grown in the field under drought stress conditions and germinated in Petri dishes under 0, 10, 20 and 30% PEG. Five DH genotypes and two varieties (Giza 168 and Sakha 93) that were characterized by their high drought tolerant were selected to use as sources of mature embryos to produce calli. the growing calli were transferred to callus culture medium with 0, 10 and 20% PEG 6000 to induce drought stress for 30 days. Two of the five selected DH genotypes and the two wheat varieties induced enough calli and successfully regenerated under drought stress. RAPD analysis using three random primers showed that 28 of 39 total amplified fragments were polymorphic with 72.8% polymorphism under 10 and 20% PEG, whereas 91.7% polymorphism in primer B-09 was higher than that observed for the other two primers B-14 and C-15 (66.7 and 60%, respectively). The four wheat genotypes revealed 19 specific markers for drought tolerance with polymorphic mean percentage 50.6%. ISSR analysis using four different primers for drought tolerance revealed 35 polymorphic fragments with 57.3% mean polymorphism from a total of 61 amplified fragments under salinity stress. The four wheat genotypes had 25 specific markers for drought tolerance with 41% mean polymorphism, Sakha 93 and DH-1 had the highest total number of markers at 10% PEG and Giza 168 at 20% PEG, while DH-1 had the highest total number of markers at the two PEG concentrations. RAPD and ISSR are significant methods to detect specific markers for drought tolerance and could be used in marker assisted selection (MAS) of wheat breeding programs to predict the most tolerant genotypes.

 

Osama E. El-Sayed, Hayam F. Ibrahim (Egypt) Development of RAPD and ISSR Markers Associated with Salt Tolerance in Bread Wheat using in Vitro Culture (pp 52-59)

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ABSTRACT

Original Research Paper: Ten double haploid (DH) genotypes and five varieties of bread wheat were grown in high salinity soil and then germinated in Petri dishes under different NaCl concentrations. Five DH genotypes and two varieties (Giza 168 and Sakha 93) that were characterized by their high salinity tolerance were selected to use as sources of mature embryos to produce calli. the growing calli were transferred to callus culture medium and salinized with NaCl to a final concentration of 0, 0.9 or 1.2%. Two of the five selected DH genotypes and the two wheat varieties successfully induced calli under salinity stress. RAPD analysis using three random primers showed that 19 of 34 total amplified fragments were polymorphic with 58.3% polymorphism under 0.9 and 1.2% Nacl, whereas 66.7% polymorphism using primer B-08 was higher than that observed for the other two primers, B-05 and B-11 (61.5 and 46.7%, respectively). The four wheat genotypes revealed 11 specific markers for salinity tolerance with 38.5% polymorphism. ISSR analysis using four different primers for salinity tolerance revealed 31 polymorphic fragments with 58.4% polymorphism from a total of 56 amplified fragments under salinity stress. The four wheat genotypes revealed 22 specific markers for salinity tolerance with 41% polymorphism, whereas Sakha 93 and DH-1 had the highest number of salinity-stress specific markers at both NaCl concentrations. RAPD and ISSR techniques are useful methods to detect specific markers for salinity tolerance and could be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) of wheat breeding programs to predict the most tolerant genotypes.

 

Nariman AH Aly, Effat AM Soliman, Tahany El-Kawokgy (Egypt) RAPD Identification of Local Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates Toxic to Spodoptera littoralis and Culex pipiens using Universal Primers for cry Genes (pp 60-66)

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ABSTRACT

Original Research Paper: Eight local Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates characterized by their toxicity against cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) and Culex pipiens mosquito larvae were identified using RAPD analysis. Five universal primers (Un1 to Un5), designed to amplify the conserved regions of five cry genes (cry1Aa, cry1Ac, cry1I, cry2 and cry3, after alignment of different accessions obtained from the NCBI GenBank database), were used. A total of 88 RAPD fragments ranging in size from 4.72 to 0.20 kb were amplified, 64 of which were polymorphic while the other were common among the eight Bt isolates. The mean percentage polymorphism shown by the five universal primers was 72.7%, specifically decreasing in this order: Un1 (85.7%), Un3 (77.8%), Un4 (76.2%), Un2 (66.7%) and Un5 (58.8%). Among the 64 polymorphic fragments, 20 were Bt isolate-specific observed in four isolates, Gh-4, Ts-5, Is-8 and As-3. These isolates varied considerably in their specific fragments: Ts-5 had the highest number (11), Gh-4 with 5, As-3 with 3 and Is-8 with 1. The other four isolates showed no specific amplified fragments. Genetic relationships of the eight local Bt isolates provide valuable, reliable information using three UPGMA dendrograms of the three primers (Un1, Un2 and Un3) of cry1, Un4-cry2 and Un5-cry3 genes.

 

Amira Hassan Abdullah Al-Abdalall (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) Pathological Studies on Root Rots of Wheat and Barley Induced by Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum and their Effects on the Crop (pp 67-70)

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Original Research Paper: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum, whichcaused root rot, on the growth and yield of wheat and barley plants. Wheat cv. eYecorarogof and barley cv. eGustuof were planted in soil artificially infected with R. solani and F. culmorum. There was a significant decrease in the growth and yield of infected plants compared with healthy plants, in particular the length, fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots, and the number of grains for each spike. Both fungi damaged wheat plants more than barley plants. R. solani had the greatest effect on the growth and yield of wheat and barley. The content of biochemical compounds also decreased in all cases of infection. Total carbohydrate, proteins and fats decreased in the range between 23.28-45.68, 0.55-26.22 and 28.45-59.94%, respectively.

 

Amira Hassan Abdullah Al-Abdalall (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) Pathological Studies of Fungi Associated with Pulse Seeds during Storage in Dammam Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (pp 71-77)

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ABSTRACT

Original Research Paper: This study aimed to identify fungi associated with ten varieties of legumes seeds in an eastern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Lupine (Lupinus albus L.), dry and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cow and mung beans (Vigna radiata L.), faba and field beans (Vicia faba L.), brown and green lentil (Lens culinaris),chickpea (Cicer judaicum). The highest percentage of fungal infection was associated with mung bean (23.29% of infection) followed by faba beans (15.75%), field beans (13.87%), dry beans (11.99%), brown lentil (11.13%), lupine (6.69%), kidney beans (6.16%), green lentil (5.14%), cow pea (3.25%) and chickpea (2.74%). Several fungi associated with these were isolated at the following frequencies: Rhizoctonia solani (21.18%), Pythium aphanidermatum (17.8%), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (13.04%), Alternaria alternata (12.18%), Aspergillus flavus (9.43%), Penicillium spp. (6.86%), Aschocayta spp. and Phytophthora spp. (4.12%). The potency of the first four most frequent fungi to infect all studied seeds was ranked, in decreasing order, as: R. solani (35.33%), P. aphanidermatum (28.67%), A. alternate (27.67%), S. sclerotiorum (18.67%). The weight of infected plants was significantly lower than that of healthy plants.

 

Mohammad Jafar Bahrani, Mehdi Remazani Gask, Akhtar Shekafandeh (Iran) Influence of IBA and Cutting Length on Rooting Rate of Wild Caper (Capparis spinosa var. Parviflora) Stem Cuttings (pp 78-79)

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Short Communication: The rooting potential of wild caper plant (Capparis spinosa var. Pariflora) leafy and leafless cuttings of different lengths (10, 15 and 20 cm) and cutting source [from growing season (softwood) and one year old stems (semi-hardwood)] was determined under different conditions. Bases of cuttings were treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) at different concentrations and planted in an enclosed mist propagation system. Softwood cuttings did not root while only a small percentage (16.1%) of semi-hardwood cuttings rooted. IBA induced rooting poorly in all cuttings but, irrespective of the concentration, it improved the rooting capacity relative to the control. The highest rooting percentage (16.1%) was obtained when leafy 15 cm semi-hardwood cuttings were treated with 2 g l-1 IBA. Possible reasons for poor rooting ability of this species by IBA are discussed.

 

Mohammad Reza Safizadeh (Iran) Comparison of the Influence of Individual Seal-packaging and Tray Wrap on Moisture Loss and Quality of eValenciaf Orange (pp 80-83)

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Short Communication: Individual sealing and tray wrap of orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. eValenciaf) with heat-shrinkable films of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), oriented polypropylene (OPP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were held for a period up to 4 months at 5C and 85-90% RH. Both methods of film-packaging showed little change in the water relations characteristics, while unwrapped orange lost weight and showed a decrease in the water content of the peel throughout the storage period. Levels of water loss for fruit in over-wrapped trays were greater than in individual sealing packages. Regardless of film thickness, two methods of packaging in LDPE, HDPE, OPP and PVC films inhibited fruit weight loss at maximum and minimum amounts, respectively. However, film thickness had less effect on fruit weight loss than chemical composition of the films. Comparison between tray wrap and individual sealing on total acid, Brix, flavor and incident of decay showed similar trends, and composition of films did not appear to have any deleterious effect on the juice quality factors. So far, it was observed that the tray wrap technique as individual sealing maintained the freshness of fruit.

 

Riad Sedki Riad El-Mohamedy, Mahmoud Mohamed Hamed Abd El-Baky (Egypt) Effect of Seed Treatment on Control of Root Rot Disease and Improvement of Growth and Yield of Pea Plants (pp 84-90)

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Original Research Paper: The efficiency of bio-priming, seed coating with bio-control gents (Trichoderma harzianum, Bacillus subtilis or Psedomonas fluorescens), seed priming and seed dressing with Rizulex?T (a fungicide) to control pea root rot disease, and improve the growth and yield of pea plants were investigated. Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and Pythium spp. were isolated from roots of pea plants infected by root rot disease in Nobaria province, Egypt. All isolated fungi were able to induce root rot on pea plants, F. solani and R. solani being the most severe fungi. In greenhouse trials seed priming enhanced the effectiveness of T. harzianum, B. subtilis and P. fluorescens to control root rot pathogens as the highest percentage disease reduction was recorded with bio-primed seed treatments. Seed coating with bio-control agents was superior to fungicide seed treatment by decreasing pea root rot disease caused by F. solani, R. solani and S. rolfsii. Under field conditions bio-priming treatments strongly reduced pea root rot disease over two seasons. There was no significant difference between seed coating with bio-control agents and fungicide seed treatment in decreasing the incidence of root rot. Bio-priming and seed coating with T. harzianum or B. subtilis most effectively stimulated vegetative growth, observed by plant height, number of leaves/plant and number of branches/plant, and significantly increasing the yield of early and total green pods. Moreover, these treatments resulted in the highest values of pea pod quality, namely pod length, pod diameter, number of seeds/pod and chemical contents of pods (i.e., TSS, total carbohydrate and protein) over both seasons.

 

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