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FOOD

Volume 1 Number 1 2007

FOOD


CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS

Carlos Conde, Paulo Silva, Natacha Fontes, Alberto C.P. Dias, Rui M. Tavares, Maria J. Sousa, Alice Agasse (Portugal), Serge Delrot (France), Hernâni Gerós (Portugal) Biochemical Changes throughout Grape Berry Development and Fruit and Wine Quality (pp 1-22)

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Special Feature: Wine is made up of more than one thousand compounds, the majority of which, such as vitamins and minerals, come from the grapes, while others, like ethanol and glycerol, are products of the winemaking process. Although sugars are either partially or completely transformed, sugar import and accumulation into the ripening berry is a major parameter of wine quality. Sugar status is directly related to the final alcoholic content of wine, and regulates several genes responsible for the development of its aromatic and organoleptic properties. Physiological ripeness is reached when the grapes achieve sufficiently high sugar levels without loosing too much acidity; however, aromatic and phenolic compound content must also be taken into account. Softening and water content are other essential characteristics of a ripe berry. From a winemaker point of view, optimal grape maturity is essential for wine quality, but is difficult to assess because it is under multifactorial control, involving grapevine cultivar variety and environmental parameters such as soil, temperature, exposure to sun, and hormonal regulation. Continued study of the key control points in grape ripening is crucial if we ultimately hope to improve grape and wine quality.

M.C. Horrillo, J. Lozano, J.P. Santos, M. Aleixandre, I. Sayago, M.J. Fernández, J.L. Fontecha, J. Gutiérrez (Spain) Olfative Sensor Systems for the Wine-Producing Industry (pp 23-29)

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Invited Mini-Review: The quality of wine is influenced by different sensory characteristics. The most important is aroma. This attribute has a 70% weight in sensory panels with respect to texture and taste. Usually, the determination of volatile compounds is carried out through expensive techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) which require complicated extraction methods and in addition are very expensive. The most important drawback, however is that these techniques are not able to measure in real time and in an on-line process. Olfative sensor systems (electronic noses) technology has emerged as a possibility for aroma profile analysis. The electronic nose consists of an array of gas sensors with different selectivity, a signal collecting unit, and a pattern recognition software (PCA, ANNs, etc). Different types of sensors have been used to detect wine aroma, such as electrochemical sensors, resistive sensors (mainly type MOS), and gravimetric sensors (type SAW) allowing for the distinguishing of wines elaborated with diverse grape varieties and ageing processes. It has also been possible to determine the detection and recognition threshold values of typical compounds of the wine and to compare them with the values obtained by a sensory panel, as well as to discriminate defects in order to detect adulterations or to identify ageing times and barrel type in order to avoid frauds. Portable systems are being developed for measuring in situ the wine evolution process, which is of great interest to the wine-producing industry.

Ana B. Crujeiras, M. Dolores Parra, J. Alfredo Martínez (Spain) Functional Properties of Fruit (pp 30-35)

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Invited Mini-Review: In recent years a number of nutritional studies have been devoted to examining specific foods for their putative healthy protective role and disease-preventing potential. Different epidemiological studies have consistently shown that there is a positive association between the intake of fruits alone or in combination with vegetables with a reduced rate of heart disease mortality, and between some common tumors and other chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes as well as, risk of eye diseases. Fruits may reduce blood lipids and when included in hypocaloric diets may help to lose weight. Recently, fruits have attracted a great deal of attention focusing on their role in some oxidative stress related diseases. This interest is attributed to the fact that these foods may provide an optimal content of phytochemicals such as natural antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, polyphenols and other compounds with healthy properties. Moreover, typical fruit components like fructose and fiber have been suggested to produce specific effects on oxidative stress. In addition, the effects of fruit on weight loss and lipid profile when included in energy restricted diets could be triggered through the antioxidant properties of fruit.

Luis A. Bello-Pérez, Francisco J.L. García-Suárez, Edith Agama-Acevedo (Mexico) Mango Carbohydrates (pp 36-40)

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Invited Mini-Review: The mango is a climacteric fruit, containing mainly carbohydrates ranged between 90.1 and 93.6% and a dietary fiber level between 3.85 and 12.64%. The carbohydrate profile of this fruit is modified during the ripening process from complex carbohydrates such as starch to single sugars such as monosaccharide (glucose, fructose) and disaccharides (sucrose). Additionally, the mango fruit has other components of the dietary fibre such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Pectin is other polysaccharide present in the fruit in the unripe stage that is hydrolyzed during ripening. The mango variety and ripening stage play an important role in the amount of carbohydrates present in the fruit. A direct relationship was found between aroma compounds and ethylene production during ripening of the fruit, and the increse in fatty acids level during ripening was related to an increase in the aroma of the fruit. Due to the high starch amount in the unripe fruit, it is possible to obtain flour with a high level of indigestible carbohydrates to use in bakery products. This review summarizes the present knowledge of carbohydrates in mango fruit at different ripening stages.

Ding Xie, Hai-yan Zhong (China), Jianha Mo (Australia), Zhong-hai Li, Tao Cui, Cui-ping Yi (China) Nutritional and Medicinal Quality of Pear Juice: Next Hotspot? (pp 41-48)

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Invited Review: With pear production increasing rapidly, the issue of why the consumption of pear juice is still far less than that of citrus and apple juice fascinates many researchers. After comparing pear with citrus and apple, particularly after analysing the factors that affect the nutritional quality of pear juice, this paper indicates that pear juice is not only a good health food with abundant Vitamin C, rich in potassium, and lower calories than citrus and apple juice, but is also a good medicine to nourish lungs, promote salivation, relieve coughs, and reduce the risk of many diseases due to its cool property and phytochemical action. In the age of the internet and genome, it is now possible to improve processing technology, and to design the nutritional recipe of pear juice to meet consumersf needs, to instruct pear planting, storing, processing and consumption effectively by integrating information from the genome to the whole body level of both humans and pears based on systems science.

D. Fiocco (Italy), I. Pardo (Spain), C. Palermo, S. Massa, G. Spano (Italy) Biogenic Amine Formation in Fermented Beverages: Targets, Tools and Triumphs (pp 49-55)

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Invited Mini-Review: Biogenic amines (BA) are mainly produced in food and beverages such as sherry products, cheese, wine and fermented sausages or vegetables by bacteria metabolism via the activity of specific amino acid decarboxylases or as a spontaneous chemical reaction. The formation of biogenic amines in food and beverages depends on the quantities of free amino acids and the presence of microorganisms with decarboxylase activities. Due to their physiological activity, these molecules are of concern in relation to food safety and spoilage. Histamine and tyramine have been the most studied because of their implication in food poisoning. The improvement of molecular tools, usually based on PCR techniques, has allowed a fast and sensitive characterization of the majority of bacteria producing BA. For instance, the sequence of tyrosine, ornithine, lysine and histidine decarboxylase genes have been determined and primers for detection of tyramine- and histamine-producing bacteria in food have been developed. Furthermore, real time PCR approaches have been undertaken in order to identify viable but not cultivable (VNC) BA-producing bacteria. Moreover, the characterization of starter cultures possessing amine oxidase activity (AO) to control or reduce the accumulation of biogenic amines is a worthwile goal in order to reduce BA production in fermented beverages.

A. Gramza-Michalowska, J. Bajerska-Jarzebowska (Poland) Leaves of Camellia sinensis: Ordinary Brewing Plant or Super Antioxidant Source? (pp 56-64)

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Invited Review: Tea (Camellia sinensis) is well known not only for its taste and aroma, but also for its health benefits, considered to be a medicine. The manuscript presents tea species profile and chemical composition, its occurrence and possible usage directions. A great number of tea origin substances have been reported to possess antioxidant properties as trapping agents and free radical quenchers, presenting a wide range of health benefits for human health and wellness. Tea polyphenols are the main constituents responsible for a teafs properties and specific taste and are also the major group of constituents that can be used as direct supplements and as very potential food antioxidants in different systems. The main tea polyphenols are flavonols or catechins, in particular epicatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, epigalocatechin and epigalocatechin-3-gallate. The world literature presents many studies showing the antioxidant activity contributions of polyphenols; however within this review detailed information on the specificity of tea polyphenols will be presented. Tea polyphenols are reported to be strong antioxidants in living organisms and lipid systems, including fish and vegetable oils, and animal fat. This paper reviews what is known of green tea species, its leaf processing and changes that occur in tea components and highlights the potential of green tea, its health benefits and bioavailability. Current possible mechanisms of polyphenol antioxidant activity are also described. The worldfs food industry needs new sources of natural substances presenting antioxidant activity that are acceptable to consumers, and which increase the shelf life and quality of food.

Palanisamy Marimuthu, Najam Akhtar Shakil, Dinesh Bahadur Saxena (India) Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Some Medicinal Aromatic Plants and Their Constituents (pp 65-67)

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Short Communication: The total phenolic content and related radical scavenging activity of essential oils of five medicinal plants Cymbopogon martini, Apium graveolens, Pimpinella anisum, Mentha piperita and Artemisia annua were analyzed. The total phenolics were analyzed by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay while the antioxidant activity of the essential oils was analyzed by the 2,21-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay. There was a range of phenolic concentrations in the studied plant essential oils, whose values ranged from 12.69 to 55 g (per 100 mg of gallic acid GA equivalent) as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The essential oil of A. graveolens exhibited a strong (92.8%) radical scavenging effect at 50 L. Essential oils of C. martini and M. piperita also showed a significant radical scavenging effect, which is comparatively better than BHA, a commonly used synthetic antioxidant.

B.N. Shyamala, Sheetal Gupta, A. Jyothi Lakshmi, Jamuna Prakash (India) Antioxidants in Leafy Vegetables and Their Efficacy in Preventing Lipid Peroxidation in Heated and Stored Oils (pp 68-72)

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Original Research Paper: This study was conducted with the objective of determining the antioxidants in four leafy vegetables (LVs), namely cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum), hongone (Alternanthera sessilis) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and study their efficacy in preventing lipid peroxidation in heated and stored oils. The vegetables were analyzed for ascorbic acid, total carotene and -carotene and antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant efficacy of the LVs was determined by analyzing free fatty acid (FFA) and the peroxide values of heated and stored refined groundnut (GN) and sunflower (SF) oils for four weeks. Results revealed that ascorbic acid, total carotene and -carotene content ranged between 12.8-49.8, 2.8-141.1 and 1.1-21.1 mg/100g, respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was found to be in the range of 6495.1?19902.0 mol/g of LV extract. Cabbage powder was effective in inhibiting peroxidation in GN and SF oils up to four weeks of storage whereas coriander leaf powder inhibited peroxidation in SF oil for four weeks. In the case of heated oils, all the four LVs significantly inhibited peroxide formation in the two oils (with the exception of spinach in the heated GN oil). Among the LVs, cabbage showed a comparatively better antioxidant property and was also effective in retarding the formation of FFA in stored oils. Overall, the LVs were more effective in preventing lipid peroxidation in SF oil than in GN oil indicating their substrate specificity. It can be concluded that LVs possess antioxidant properties hence, may serve as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants.

Hanane Kaddouri, Djamel Saïdi, Omar Kheroua (Algeria) Cowfs Milk: a Food and a Potential Source of Allergens (pp 73-78)

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Invited Mini-Review: Cowfs milk is an exclusive food of newborn infants when breast-feeding is not possible. It is also considered to be an important dietary source for adult humans. Because of itfs richness in essential amino acids it can be of significant nutritional value. In addition, the hydrolysis of certain compounds releases bioactive peptides which have important biological properties. However, in some subjects, these peptides can be potentially allergenic and cause an adverse immunologic response, known as cowfs milk allergy (CMA). Pathophysiological mechanisms involved in CMA are still not yet completely understood. A possible solution can be obtained by the use of extensively hydrolyzed formulae (enzymatic hydrolysis and/or heating and ultrafiltration) or by other technological methods (bacterial fermentation, microwave heating and gamma irradiation). These formulae show a reduced but never complete abolishment of antigenicity/allergenicity. This article attempts to present a review on main nutritional characteristics of cowfs milk and impact of various technological means on antigenicity/allergenicity properties.

Aly Savadogo, Cheik A.T. Ouattara, Alfred S. Traore (Burkina Faso) Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Human Nutrition (pp 79-84)

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Invited Mini-Review: Several fermented foods and beverages that incorporate lactic acid bacteria are produced throughout the world. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely distributed in nature and occur as natural microflora in many femented foods (fermented milk, cereal fermented food, fermented fruit products, among others). Several thousand fermented foods are said to be in existence and are classified as beverages, fruits and processed foods, such as cereal, dairy food, fish, vegetables, beans, meat, starch-added crops and others. In addition to fungi and yeast LAB are also deeply related to human history and have made a great contribution to food fermentation, and to the improvement of its flavor. LAB has been, and is of interest in the promotion of good health in animals and humans. LABs may be used as probiotics, whose positive effects include: growth promotion of farm animals, protection of the host from intestinal infections, alleviation of lactose intolerance, relief of constipation, anticarcinogenic, anticholesterolaemic and immunostimulatory effects, nutrient synthesis and bioavailability, prevention of genital and urinary tract infections. This paper reviews the potential of LAB used in several fermented food production systems and their importance (probiotic role, nutrient synthesis, immunostimulatory effect, flavour production, food protection due to bacteriocin and acid production) in human nutrition.

Robert H. Glew, Dorothy J. VanderJagt, Robert S. Glew (USA) Plant Foods of West Africa: A Call for Bioavailability Studies (pp 85-87)

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NO ABSTRACT : Research Note

Lucy F. Oyetayo, Victor O. Oyetayo (Nigeria) Dynamics of Phytate-Zinc/Calcium Balance of Processed African Breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) Seeds (pp 88-90)

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Short Communication: Fresh and processed (boiled; boiled with trona - a seasoning agent and tenderizer) African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) seeds were analysed for their calcium, zinc, and phytate composition, all of which decreased with boiling and boiling with trona. The decrease in phytate concentration during boiling (1466.69 to 902.58 mg/100 g) is thought to be beneficial, since a reduction in phytate concentration will bring about availability of divalent metals such as Fe, Ca, Zn, Mg etc. The inhibitory effect of phytate on calcium and zinc absorption predicted using the calculated [Ca] [Phytate]/[Zn] ratios indicated that the bioavailability of calcium and zinc was not decreased by phytate concentration and that the processing method does not alter the bioavailability of these minerals.

Jana Kalinová (Czech Republic) Nutritionally Important Components of Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) (pp 91-100)

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Invited Review: Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) belongs to one of the first cultivated plants. Although the crop is traditionally grown, especially in Asia and from European countries through to Russia, nowadays it has become a new alternative crop and a new raw material for food production in many developed countries. Also changes of climatic conditions can support the growth of this drought-resistant plant. Millet products have found use in diets of patients with celiac diseases because the protein complex does not content gluten-forming proteins. While the protein is deficient in lysine like common cereals, proso millet has higher component of essential amino acids than barley, oat, rye and wheat. Therefore millet protein together with other proteins could be a basis for the development of new foods. Grains of proso millet are a rich source of starch, trace elements, dietary fibre and vitamins. Seeds also contain components with healing benefits, which decrease the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in blood and injury to the liver. Phenolic compounds like antioxidants and beta-glucans are present, too. However compounds decreasing the nutritional value of the foodstuff like tannins, phytates or oxalates are included. The allergenic responses to proso millet are rare but have also been established. This review focusses on the knowledge of the chemical composition and some characteristics important for processing millet and its utilization for new products.

Masahiro Okihashi, Yoko Kitagawa, Hirotaka Obana, Yukio Tanaka, Yoko Yamagishi, Kuniyo Sugitate, Kaori Saito, Masayuki Kubota, Michiko Kanai, Taisuke Ueda, Syuichi Harada, Yoshio Kimura (Japan) Rapid Multiresidue Method for the Determination of more than 300 Pesticide Residues in Food (pp 101-110)

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Techniques Paper: The aim of this study was to develop a simple and efficient sample preparation methodology in pesticide multiresidue analysis that shortens the analytical process during extraction and cleanup. We have conducted recovery tests of about 300 pesticides in foods with a modified method reported previously. Ten g of sample was extracted with 20 ml of acetonitrile using a high-speed homogenizer. One gram of NaCl and 4 g of anhydrous MgSO4 were added and shaken immediately. The tube was centrifuged to separate the sediment and water from the acetonitrile extract. The acetonitrile layer obtained after salting out was loaded into the double-layered SPE cartridge with a graphitized carbon black and primary secondary amine, followed by elution with acetonitrile-toluene (3:1). The eluate was evaporated and the residue was dissolved in acetone-hexane (1:9) or methanol. The test solution was determined by a GC-FPD for organophosphorous pesticides, GC-MS in the NCI mode for organochlorines, pyrethroids and other halogenated pesticides, and GC-MS in the EI mode for other pesticides. LC-MS/MS was also used to determine less volatile pesticides. Recovery studies were performed by fortifying 3 or 5 matrices at 0.05 or 0.1 µg/g. Recoveries of about 300 pesticides were mainly 70-110% and the relative standard deviations were below 20%. Limits of detection ranged between 0.1 and 50 ng/g for tested pesticides.

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